Tuesday, November 24, 2015

Do we really want to end terrorism?

Image result for ISIS killings
How terrorists get arsenal to cause havoc across the globe and how to stop these supplies first should be the focused line of action if at all the nations are serious to wipe out the terrorism.  The war against terrorism is mere an illusion unless such supplies are stopped. The terrorists and the nations sending the army or air attacks on the terrorist camps would only mean benefits to the weapon manufacturers, dealers, smugglers and the funding agencies.

Terrorism has become a global problem, a severe threat to the humanity. Today Islam is blamed for all the incidents of the terrorism, Taliban is now replaced by ISIS…tomorrow some other organization will replace it. But the chain of the terrorist activities won’t come to an ultimate halt.

Paris attack made global headlines causing agony and fury across the globe. Terrors of ISIS continues unabated. But Boko Haram remains mostly un-discussed as they are causing havoc in so-called “less civilized” countries. This shows how our standards of humanity are degraded.  Actually, in 2015, almost every day,  some or other part of the world experienced ambush, bombings, kidnappings, inhuman killings and suicide attacks. After Paris incident world seemed suddenly awakened and has declared war against terrorism, especially ISIS.

ISIS is using mostly American origin arms, from automatic rifles to Rocket launchers. It is said that they have acquired those weapons from the Syrian-Iraqi army men, Saudi Arabia and China. There is the well-established chain of the supplies and its distribution. Britain is said to be arming Kurdish people to fight against ISIS. Getting hold of weapons by stealing is a myth. What about the ceaseless supply of ammunition? They must be smuggled in. How Maoists of India get hold of arms and ammunition? It is well-known fact that from China via North-Eastern states they are smuggled and distributed among Maoists. The facts and figures show that India lost double the people in Maoist attacks so far than the people, including soldiers, died in the three Indo-Pak wars. US have been supplying arms to Iraq with a futile hope that they will be used against ISIS. Rather it has become a major source for ISIS to get modern weaponry.

Having fundamentalism (Muslim, Maoist or any other for that matter) major reason behind any act of the terrorism is the thing that does have ancient traits. The problem with us is, to fight out terrorism and stop killings of the innocents, the priority should have been to stop the supply of the armaments to any such country/region, even for the lame reason that such people will fight out terrorist groups! For example, US supplied arms to Iraqi army to wage war against ISIS. It is doubted that some part of those arms, intended for Iraqi army reached in hands of ISIS. How then these countries can boast of ending terrorism? ISIS is a blot, but we cannot forget that they have been nurtured by the politically motivated intentions. America (and its friends) and Russia have been arming the terrorist groups alternatively. Russian war against ISIS and now France and allies participating it a great joke on humanity.

The lobby of arms manufacturers is strong in US. Russia too possesses equal ability to produce arms. China too is in the race to increase supplies wherever possible. They use all means, even smuggling them, to the destination wherever possible trouble erupts.

Under the circumstances, I would like to say that the war against terrorism is a lie. Warlords don’t wish at all that the terrorism should be eliminated from the face of the earth. Rather they are grooming the terrorists of the future by killing terrorists of the present!

 Blaming Islam for all terrorism is superficial excuse. May be the tenets of Quran are responsible for it. But then which religious book is devoid of these terrorist elements? Gita too specifically is aimed to wage war against Adharma…killing of human beings is necessary to establish Dharma…says Krishna ultimately! Now there is no clear definition of what Dharma or Adharma is!  But Hindu’s don’t go on killing the people in massive proportion, though their religion allows it! The only reason is Hindu’s have no easy access to the weapons. However. we can see how thee use of arms is being promoted by the fanatic Hindu organizations. Or else they too could have waged a bloody war against Muslims as RSS have been preaching since its inception! The religious commands in the old Testament too promote terrorism

What we need is, if at all we, the global citizens, are serious to have freedom to live and let live, if at all we are serious to end terrorism, first of all the weapon supplies has to be banned to the people/groups or nations those are up to disturb the global peace.

I mean that the weapon manufacturers and their supply chains must be kept under constant surveillance and should be punished heavily if at all they are found to be guilty in supplies to the wrong people. The nations too, those support or promote terrorism, should be imposed with economic sanctions. In a way the global community shall isolate them. 

And, under the disguise of Superpower, global policing of any nation, too, is needed to be stopped at top priority. Superpower means an ability to enslave others, politically or economically. The world nations should be well aware of the risks they are undertaking in wooing the so-called economic, political and nuclear powers.

If the terrorists can get easy access to the modern weaponry the day is not far away that they also can get hold of nuclear weapons too! Fanatics are ready to die as they are trained suicidal and what even if entire globe is destroyed after them? The risk is heavy….not at all affordable to the human being and other species.

To me, the war against terrorism can only be fought and ended with fruitful results only if the supply of the arms and ammunitions are curbed with global consensus and the smugglers are set to heavy punishments.

This is not impossible if the world is really up to fight out terrorism. If not….ISIS will never end….it would produce other hundreds from their blood!

Blood of the humanity will be spilled forever and the dream of ultimate freedom of humanity will never come true.

We have to make the choice…!

Monday, November 23, 2015

Nations cannot last forever…

Thus it makes us think and challenge the very concept of the Nations. If mankind could abandon outdated old systems, we too can abandon the present one. One day we need to abolish this concept of nations to establish new order of the the world…One World: One Nation!

If we peep into the early history of mankind, we find that numerous changes in the human life have taken place over the millenniums. Many systems emerged to suite the need of the contemporary times came into existence to collapse under internal or external pressures to give way to new one or because they simply wont work with changing times.
Primordial man was wanderer, a food-gatherer-hunter man as anthropologists describe them. Being nomads, in constant search of food and game, there couldn’t be eternal emotional ties with any particular land or region. Every human being was closely tied up with some or other band that formed tribes in later course of the time. The tribes trod almost every region that came in his sight. The perpetual wars, amongst tribes to establish temporal right over the forests where abundant game was available, would take place. Subjugated tribes would be taken for slave. Women would be used to grow population of the tribes.
In later course human being learnt very important art to domicile useful animal for food and even for protection, like dogs. Still he was a nomad as he had to move on constant search of grazing lands.
There were no permanent settlements till human being invented agriculture. Agriculture made human life easy, comparatively far cozy. He made settlements around water sources and fertile lands. This revolutionized human life and his way of thinking. His perspective towards human society and life got entirely changed. The drastic change in lifestyle made an everlasting impact over his psyche which can be traced even today. First time ever a concept of “ownership” arose in his mind, and he started implementing it. It was but natural there would be constant disputes amongst tribal-man about boundaries of the land and its expansion. The wars between tribes too were constant those would try to force out settlements to establish their own. In a way beginning of agrarian man was in the state of confusion, violence and uncertainty.
This was the time when human being thought of some system in an order to safeguard individual interests and protection from aggressors. Thus first idea of State came into an existence. This was very rudimentary organization which was going to develop through next millenniums. Since still human being was a tribal man, the tribes constituted their assemblies headed by chieftains to govern the interests of the tribe. The assemblies formulated the laws and ethical regulations with general consensus of the tribal people. In wars all those capable of fight would join to protect boundaries or for aggression. Internally rights over land, wealth and women were designed. The primordial religion too got tremendously modified in this period. In the course of the time City-State concept was developed. Some places partially democratic assembly systems were developed. Such States were too small with limited boundaries. We can see such examples in Greek and Indian civilization where kind of rudimentary republics were established. Jatak stories give us insight about the governance of such Republics.
But this system gradually took its last breath, because of its inherent limitations, to give way to the emergence of Kingdoms. This new system was of a representative of the Divine, a King, who would rule over the people, govern them, protect them and expand the boundaries by defeating other kingdoms. Vedik literature tells us a myth how first king Many was appointed by Brahma…to rule the people so that there would not be anarchy. Many accepted the difficult task in return with taxes from the people he would govern. This King became representative of the God. Early kings were chiefs of the religion as well.
With Kingdoms we find expansions of the boundaries. Constant wars to retain the boundaries. When kingdoms found the losses being incurred by constant wars the early pacts of alignments too came into an existence. So some kingdoms became allies and some sworn enemies. People were taught to be loyal to the king and kingdom. We find seeds of early patriotism sown in ancient times. Dying for the State in wars became a matter of pride as a heaven was assured by the religion. Though these were artificial and illusionary promises, they worked. We find numerous examples of such patriarchs in the past in ballads, in epics and in legends.
I can say creating artificial concepts in an order to make easy and profitable governance was necessity of those times which was destined to last till now.
Foundations of imperialism were laid down in Kingdoms. The ambitious Kings wouldn’t be satisfied with limited territories. Thus subjugating other kingdoms to annex to their own begun as back as in sixth century BC. The imperialism started in India with Brihadrath dynasty. Later on Chandragupta, Ashoka and so many followed the suite. They acquired most of the Indian subcontinent and ruled through vassals. Chinese Empire emerged in 221 BC. Alexander dreamt to rule entire earth but succeeded in winning over few. Julius Caesar too was an ambitious man with immense valor, but Republicans of Rome killed him to curb his empirical ambitions, but soon after his murder the time Roman Empire came into existence to last for over four centuries.
Thus we can say the world came under shadow of imperialism that changed boundaries of the world…and thus human life and culture. In medieval period Muslim powers established their empires in India and elsewhere as well.
We can see till renaissance period globe was under rule of some or other emperors or kings. The empires collapsed and new empires arose. The boundaries were not perpetual. In fact boundaries had no meaning. The emperors and Kingdoms were ruled through vassals and feudal lords. Human rights had no meaning. The extreme exploitation of farmers/tenants and small manufacturers at the hands of feudal lords was a routine. Emperor, a divine power, representative of the God hardly thought of the common people. The French Revolution and renaissance brought awakening amongst the people. Way of thinking was drastically changed by these incidents. In fact very concept of “Nation” was outcome of the revolution.
Still we can find, the Nation-State theory was limited to the Europe. European countries jumped in the competition of colonizing rest of the world as their market places and source of constant supply of the cheap raw material and labor in the form of slaves. Rapid industrialization in Europe thus made their subjects rich and wealthy at the cost of the colonized territories throughout the globe. This was a kind of new imperialism practiced by nation-States. The European countries, as every country wanted some or more share in colonization, fell in a violent and aggressive competition that finally led to First World War. It changed the map of the Europe. United States already had attained freedom from England. Colonies too got engaged in some or other way in freedom fight. But the seeds of destruction those were sowed in the First World War resulted in World War Two. Adolf Hitler had obsession of establishing a Nazi (Third Reich) Empire. We are aware how destructive this war had been. USA and Soviet Russia emerged as superpowers post World War II. By middle of twentieth century most of the countries gained independence.
Then we enter in the era of cold war. The world got divided in two distinct orders…capitalist and communist. Many countries like India remained non-aligned. But from one India were created three countries. The boundaries of India alone got changed thrice. After collapse of Soviet Russia again many countries came into an existence. Some countries were being divided, such as North and South Korea; some countries got united like West and East Germany…
Thus why we are having a glimpse of the history, though everyone knows it, to understand one vital point that boundaries those make Nation, have never been perpetual. In fact the very concept of Nation is very new to the mankind. It is a symbolic, emotional but illusionary concept that has no meaning in real sense. We as a human being have always been ruled by emotions which need to be analyzed. We need to understand proper meaning of the state in which we are today. Though we call ourselves now civilized one, we are not free from imperialistic sentiment. Nation, as were systems of governance of the past like City-States, Kingdoms, vast empires, Nation-States too is a system that has sever lacuna's as the other systems had. Those systems collapsed because they had inherent problems…major one being lesser value to the human life, exploitation and not creating perpetual economy.
The Nations too are not exceptions, although degree may vary. We have created new problems such as of religious and sectarian terrorism. We have changed meaning of the independence as there is no independent country in real sense. No borders can be said everlasting as there are demands from the some or other sections demanding separate independent Nations almost in every nation…with violent acts or peaceful protests…No Nation is as safe as thought from the sudden aggression's that might change borders of this or that nation. This has been happened and will keep on happening. The race each country has fallen in is of ultramodern armaments and spending on armies.
Are we safe? In fact no one is safe, no matter whether one is citizen of a superpower or of a weakest Nation. Thus it makes us think and challenge the very need of the Nations. If mankind could abandon old useless systems, we too can abandon the present one. One day we need to abolish this concept to establish new order of the world…One World: One Nation!

Monday, November 9, 2015

Liberate yourself first!

From millenniums we have been taught to be a slave, either of religion, state or community! We have been so used to the slavery that we think being in slavery is our freedom. Politically too, no matter who are in the power, indigenous or foreign, we always were oppressed pawns! The degree of oppression varied but it didn’t vanish. We are told that there was golden age in remote past in India, but the social history contradicts this claim. It could be a golden age for some, not for the common people!

We the Indians believe that the conditions of present pitiable life are product of the sins committed in past life and thus faithfully have been living it without protests. The ruling or rich or religious classes, we thought, must have accumulated many righteous acts in their past life; hence protesting them too was a sin! Rather, not questioning the system was only righteous act that was expected from us! They used the tactic to make their life comfortable at the cost of common people!

This idea was greatest invention of India that helped tyrants to rule the masses incessantly without any need to wield the weapons or using the forces! The slavery was accepted as part of their destiny. There obviously was no need to search for optional political ideologies to strengthen the rule or oppose the rule. Priestly and political class worked hand in hand. The doctrine was rooted so much so that the people accepted most obediently the plight of their present life. Saints too were no exception. Nobody bothered for the salvation from the slavery of present material life. They all eyed on the salvation after death! There were protests long ago in the remote past to this evil thought, but they were systematically diluted in course of the time, so much so that they became distant unrealistic mythical memory!

Today, though we think we are free, our state of mind remains still unchanged. The political freedom too, which we think we have, is not the freedom in its true nature. Rather our freedom is an illusion! Our overall thinking process still works as same as it was working during the pre-independence era and in the times the feudal system had become basis of our society. It did happen simply because, since we never knew that we are been made volunteering slaves, and we loved it, there was no question to think of overthrowing the yokes of slavery forced upon us by our overall system.

Let us have a look at how the slavish mentalities still keep on haunting our life! To overthrow Vedic social system of inequality, we tried to find system of equality without abandoning the basic philosophy of inequality. Rather, what such people did was they changed their idols. They changed their scriptures and embraced the books written by the eminent personalities those were born in their caste! They changed their salutations. They nourished hatred against so-called upper class and other equivalents as well to establish their own supremacy. They too became propagandists the way so-called religious tyrants were. They too desperately fell in quest for searching of their own identities in remote past in some clans and clung to it. They also started to write the history that was suitable to their purpose. They did not think their idols of recent past too have become outdated as the knowledge and thoughts too keep on moving forth! The defeat of progressive movement was marked as soon they too followed the same rout, falsely thinking they were leading the path of freedom!

This was no different than what religious fanatics were doing! RSS all the time kept on harping of the tyranny of Islam rule thus teaching hatred to the people they thought are Hindu’s. They always spoke highly about the so-called Veda’s and infinite science loaded in it! They too embarked on a mission to rewrite history that could satiate their egos to boast of rich legacy of the past! The legacy of the only selective section of the Indian society!

In a way, we can say that this is a process of making people slaves of the past, slaves of the idols and slaves of the false identities! The master might have changed, but slavery did rule, same way as it were in the past, in different forms!

Religion, history and languages are the major tools in the hands of the people those want to be enslaved and to enslave people! Let us not forget, creating inferiority complex in some segments of the society is form of forcing slavery, no matter what mean is used! Inferiority does not allow any scope for equality! But, however, we find that all the sections of society, to establish their pseudo identities, are in quest of attaining and forcing the slavery of its worst kind!

The pity is slaves of the past try to find their self in false glory of the past. Indians have forgotten that the history did not take its course for their present convenience. History is history and it has to be evaluated without forcing present relevance’s and prejudices upon it!  History is not for anybodies convenience. But we are using the history as a tool. We are using languages too as a tool to boast of some section’s superiority over others! Language, to be brief, cannot be an invention of some isolated group of the people and taught to others. It is always a collective process. Still such philosophies are in wide circulation and commoners fall prey to them!

We need to liberate ourselves from such inhuman philosophies of the history and political sciences those are created to throw us in crevice of slavery! This is a quest in which slaves attempt desperately to make other slaves. But the fact remains, none is free. Falsehood doesn’t lead mankind anywhere. 

The problem is with our slavish mentality. Problem is with what we really think of the liberty. Problem is with our viewpoint as to how we look at our own life. Problem is with our lack of wisdom!

The process of liberation begins from We the individuals.  Unless we know what the liberty is in its real sense, mark it, we are destined to be eternal slaves of the circumstances. Many a time’s slavery is convenient because it gives false pleasure! But ultimately it swallows your freedom and forces you to be silent even if you might want to speak out sometime! Unless you are free from self-imposed slavish mentality, you will never find true political freedom!

What we aim at? We aim at the true freedom! We aim at true wisdom. We want to open the path of awakening of every self. Political freedom begins with the individual’s freedom. The freedom is from the religious tyranny, freedom from the clutches of falsely glorified history. Freedom from inferiority complex! Freedom to be an individual of own estimates.

This is all about liberty! Present politics is devoid of such liberty because they too want to use you as mere slave. They don’t want you to be an independent thinker. The independent voices are always suppressed. We don’t want our nation full of the people where individuality is at stake and risk!

When I say about liberty, I just mean to say, liberate yourself first, only then you can liberate the world around you!

Thursday, November 5, 2015

What liberty means to the farmers?

 About 60% leaders in India hail from the farming communities. The percentage was even more when we attained freedom. Rather first five year plan was dedicated to bring agriculture revolution. Yes, India since then attained self-reliability in food. But what about the farmers those were active part of green revolution?

We see the condition of farmers is declining monsoon after monsoon, forcing them to live in the devastated conditions that many a times lead to the suicides!  We have almost forgotten that unless economic condition of this 55% population is enhanced there cannot be real equitable economic revolution in the country. The main reason is though he is the producer he has no authority over deciding price of his produce! Rather he is showered with such a subsidies and packages that weaken his spirit of innovations! Unless farmer doesn’t see profitable outcome of his labor he will tend to be dependent on the mercy of the government and the shrewd politicians has been taking disadvantage of their situation.

Instead of government fixing base prices or the agents it is right of the farmer to decide price of his produce. If he cannot get such price due to market conditions at the moment, he should have been given enough facilities to store his produce in ware houses or cold storage. He should get instant loan facilities over such stock so that he has no need to sale his stock at throw away prices. He also should be given opportunities to sale his produce directly to the end consumers or the buyer of his choice so that the vicious chain of middlemen is broken. This is not impossible. Just following things are needed to be implemented on high priority.

1)    Scrap Market Yard committees which have become center of farmer’s exploitation.

2)    Make available enough cold storages and warehouses in every tehsil and district places…encourage private sector to get this done.

3)    Make available enough space in every town or city where farmers can directly sale their produce to the end users or retailers.

4)    Food processing industry is in its infancy in the country. There is no provision to process surplus hence there is about 30% wastage (vegetables and fruits) which is loss to the national as well farmer’s economy. The simple technologies like dehydration can be taught and encouraged. So that there won’t be any wastage and same time it will make available additional employment.

There are many more things associated with plight of the farmers, but root cause is he has no right to decide his price and his waiting capacity is so limited that he has to be dependent on mercy of the traders and government. Merciless mercy of the government has been of no help to him so far.

The liberty to the farmers means that he should be freed from the artificial bondages he has been thrown in. He has every right to decide which crop he should prefer and at what price he should sale it or simply process it! Snatching his right to make his own decision is not going to make farmer free from his plight and improve his economic condition.

There are other facets as well of this issue which we will discuss in next installment!

Visit Swarna Bharat Party agenda to know more what reforms we want to bring in every segment! 

Monday, November 2, 2015

Beef ban to provoke farmers to commit suicides?

There cannot be any religion in food habits. There cannot be such doctrine in any religion or laws. No food has proven bad for the health though propaganda against meat consuming has ancient traits in some religions. Jainism is one of them from India. The Vedic people and even Indus civilization people used to consume cow/bull meat. Ref.:  http://www.sabhlokcity.com/2013/07/the-precise-method-of-cow-slaughter-in-the-indus-valley-civilisation/ The practice of sacrifice of cow and bulls is as ancient as pre-historic era among pastoral tribes. The animal sacrifice was related with fertility cult. Such sacrifices and beef eating continued even after the agriculture was invented.

I received multiple threats two weeks ago when my Marathi article against beef ban and elaborating how Vedic people along with Indus people used to consume beef. People have become intolerant because they just don’t want to reason! Most of the Vedic and Hindu people those are under influence of RSS ideology think that the people's mandate was not to BJP government but to RSS and not at all to the progress of the country which Mr. Modi was bragging about in election times. Rather talk of progress now has almost vanished from the people’s discussion. This is why there almost are no concernes over dwindling economy.

They say Hindus worship holy cow hence cow cannot be slaughtered! They have imposed ban on cow slaughter in most of the states and may be soon all other states too will follow the suit! The Dadri lynching and other brutal episodes followed by that incident has shocked the rational people. The main thing of worry is that such incidents are openly supported by leaders as well as crazy, insane people!

Beef eating was quite popular among Vedic people and other societies across India. Rig Veda in many verses talk about it. Cow sacrifices were common. In excavations across the country has unraveled the bones of cow, bulls, buffaloes, horses etc. showing the food habits of the people of those times. Buddha too did not prohibit meat to the monks. Instead his orders were, “"Monks, I allow you fish and meat that are quite pure in three respects: if they are not seen, heard or suspected to have been killed on purpose for a monk. But, you should not knowingly make use of meat killed on purpose for you." (Book of the Discipline, Vol. 4, p. 325) There was beef eating practice in Buddha’s times too.

From evidences it can be deduced that the beef and other meat eating was banned among Vaishnava cult in Gupta era. But others sects continued with their practice. It seems only after tenth century, when India had to confront series of famines, till 1630 AD, in which not only large populations were perished but the first onslaught was on cattle. Van Twist reports, about 1630 AD famine, that the roads were blocked with the dead men and animal. There was no food to eat and no grass for the cattle. The famine of 1394 continued for almost 14 years devastating rural and urban life! From 1022 AD till AD 1630 there are such 350 famines have been recorded across the country. The constant onslaught of famines completely changed people’s life style and social order. A free society became closed and village oriented Balutedari system was introduced, thus confining the production limited to village needs. 

We can imagine, how the natural calamities would have considerably reduced number of cows and bullocks those always had been backbone of agriculture. Under the changed circumstances, it seems obvious that cows and bull rearing became most important than killing it for food. Thus cow slaughter ban came in use as it was the need of the time, not because of any religious doctrine. Cow became holier than holy for her scarcity because of famines. The myth that 33 crore gods reside in cow has very late origin than is thought. Most of the practices, though later treated as having religious relevance, emerge from the urgent needs of the people. Such practices continue even after the circumstances are changed.  Holy Cow concept has such practical origin. The farmers developed this concept, hijacked by medieval religious fanatics with a purpose to use it against beef eating Muslims. “Go Brahmin Pratipalak” (Protector of Cow) title to the kings emerged in this era only. We do not find such title applied to any king before that era. 

Muslim hatred is a main reason for present ban on cow slaughter and prohibition to beef eating. It is not that RSS has any love for cows, if we look the condition of cows kept at various Goshala’s. Today already nation is burdened with non-productive and stray cattle. Supreme Court had preferred ban only on young cow and bulls. The farmer’s economy was previously set, because he would sell his cattle as soon they became unproductive to him and would buy young calves. When in any financial trouble it was his first liquid asset to meet urgent requirements. Farmland would be last option to sell off to survive.

But now, this source has gone. Even if he sells illegally he gets half of the price than what he used to get. He cannot replace old ones with fresh livestock. Most parts of the nation is facing drought-like situation. The grazing lands, whatsoever that has remained, are devoid of grass. The Kharip season has not yielded enough for food, then how he can feed his animal? And feeding useless animal till they naturally die is a burden to which neither he has any solution nor the government!

What he will do? In all probabilities he will stop rearing cows and instead will go for buffalo’s as there is no ban on its slaughter. Bullocks have become nearly irrelevant for tilling lands as most of the farmers are using tractors to aid their agro-work. But it will consume time. Till then farmers plight won’t end.  Already number of farmer suicide is growing. The additional burden that has been slapped on them already has added to his trouble.

But one day Cow certainly is going to fall under category of the rare species. None is interested in rearing the species that adds to financial burden and invite constant threats from the fanatics.

If one really wants to protect cow, he should buy a cow and take care of her, lifelong! Ban on slaughter is not a right answer. Right answer also is not to create havoc over beef eating. It is freedom of every citizen to consume food of his choice. You are at liberty to propagate against any meat eating or beef eating with due reasoning and in democratic manner, but have no right at all to forcibly ban and prohibit anything. That is against principles of liberty that constitution guarantees to every citizen.

And it will be utterly inhuman to destroy farmer’s economy by forcing such stupid illogical bans. It is inhuman to add another reason to farmer’s suicide. Already farmer is troubled with problems of his own. Low productivity because of natural calamities have made already the life intolerable! Why add another one to provoke them to commit suicide?

I would like to request concerned state governments to lift this insane ban and let farmers and beef consumers decide their choices on their own! No State has any right to interfere in his personal choices. Such bans violate the very principle of liberty of the citizens!


Two Religious systems....

Still, however Varna system of Vedic religion remains an enigma to the scholars as even Vedic literatures too gives conflicting explanations to its origin. As we have seen in the last chapter, except of Purushasukta Varna system doesn’t occur anywhere in Rigveda. The term Shudra, except Purushasukta, is totally unknown to the rest of Rigveda. Apparently Varna or Shudra terms too do not appear in Avesta. We have seen that it is proven beyond doubt that the Purushasukta is composition of far later times, when Vedic language was more perfected. So the natural question will arise, how come that all of sudden the term Shudra for people appears in Purushasukta and later Vedic literature?

Without going in details of the stories created to explain for classes or Varna’s, let us focus on a major issue that needs to be taken on anvil.

Aryan invasion theory was considered to be a main reason for creation of fourth Varna and caste system. It was widely assumed that the invading Aryans won over Dasa-Dasyus, aboriginals of India and enforced lowly social status upon them. AIT is debunked long ago and is replaced with the Indo-European Language speakers’ migration theory to explain linguistic similarities across India to Europe.

Even if Invasion or Migration theory is taken as true following points has to be honestly dealt with.

1) Indian subcontinent doesn’t show major influx of foreigners since +7000 BC. Most of the Indian tribes were settled by then with the invention of the agriculture. Indus-Ghaggar Civilisation started to flourish in the same region by collective efforts of same people, as explained by J. M. Kenoyer. This would mean that the aboriginals of India weren’t savage people as Invasion theorists want to imply. Decline of IGC is now unanimously attributed to the climatic changes and its continuity in changed forms is archaeologically also well documented.

2) If we consider migration theory to be true, in waves, migrating people only can enforce their language and culture on the original residents only if they can outnumber the locals. It is roughly estimated that the population of IGC alone (about 12.5 lakh sq. kilometers) was about five millions. They were well cultured people having their own religion to follow. The question would be, without any wars or violent conflicts, the migrating hoards of the so-called Aryans, how could they enforce their rule upon them? There is no slightest reference in any of the Vedic literature of such conflict. There is not a single archaeological evidence to indicate wars and battles. Since there also is no shred of proof available of demographic migration, the question remains same.

3) From IGC (Indus-Ghaggar Civilisation) finds we have fair idea of the religion the people adhered to. Normally invaders try to impose their own gods and culture on the subjugated populaces. Religiously speaking, we clearly find that the fourth class, i.e. Shudra was always outside of the Vedic religion and its rituals. There seems no attempt to destroy old faiths, though Vedics detested them. Shaivait or idolatrous faiths have been survived till date. On the contrary, Vedic gods remained only in Vedic literature, never got noteworthy attention of the common people. Rather Vedic people started efforts to assimilate Hindu Gods with Vedic Gods. Had Vedic Aryans been superior and had enforced their religion on the local people after subjugating them, naturally past faiths would have been destroyed. This doesn’t seem to be the case at all!

5) Similar logic can be applied to the language. If the migrating Vedic Aryans weren’t large in number, nor they were victorious, how could they linguistically Aryanize the local populace, that too only in north India? This only does mean that Vedic Aryans neither could impact on local languages and religion! Then how could they enforce some lowly social status on them?

6) Fourth Varna is considered to be the part of Vedic social order. But was the fourth Varna ever part of the Vedic religion? It was not as evidenced by Vedic literature itself because this Varna had no Vedic religious rights whatsoever. With this condition, naturally the fourth Varna, considered as part of Vedic social order becomes non-Vedic, of another religion. Had they been part of Vedic social order, they would have some or other religious rights, but it was never a case.

6) We find many contradictory examples from the Vedic literature and known history. According to Vedic doctrine Shudra cannot accumulate wealth or attain any social status. But Sutra literature commands that the Brahmin should not eat in even the domain of Shudra kings! If considered this being true, there were Shudra kings. Satapatha Brahmin informs Shudra Kings were ruling in southern parts of India. Also it is another story of origin of Shudra that they were offspring’s of the Asuras. It clearly shows that the Shudras were the class not related anywhere with the Vedics, having their own independent existence and religious practices. Had it been the case that the Vedic Aryans ruled the sub-continent, there wouldn’t have been any Shudra King!

7) In known history, we are aware that Shishunaga, Nanda, Maurya, Satavahana, Yadava and many other dynasties belonged to the Shudra class. Mahabharata too states participation of Shudra kings in epical war. Had Vedic doctrine been that strict and implemented forcibly or honored by the masses there wouldn’t have been such a case.

8) There also is no known example of Shudras being denied of accumulation of the wealth in practice. Rather most of the landlords belonged to Shudra Varna. The mercantile classes, not designated as Vaishyas, were the wealthy people, were conducting nationwide trade, occasionally donating to the temples and public works and had good reputations in the royal courts. The donation inscriptions at Buddhist caves to temples clearly points out to this fact.
Having considered above points, though there are many to point out our major misunderstanding about the fourth Varna, we have more to discuss on the caste system. However we first have to erase our most grave misunderstanding that HINDU AND Vedic communities are one and the same.

Two religions: Two systems

We cannot overlook at the fact that there are two distinct religions and hence two different social orders. Whether Vedic religion came to India by mass migration or was spread here with missionary practices by handful of the preachers, a fact remains that the people here were already following idolatrous religion centered on fertility concepts, i.e. Shakti and Shiva or whatever they were being called in ancient times.

It is a fact that the Vedic religion is not idolatrous. It is fire centric, just like Zoroastrian religion. They have a pantheon of the abstract gods to be praised through the offerings in sacred fire.
The ritualistic practices of both the religions stand poles apart. Tarkateertha Laxmanshastri Joshi states, the fire-centric religion of the Aryans was of primordial kind whereas Puja of non-Aryans (non-Vedics) was exaltation of the religious thought. Puja, must be noted here, is not at all Vedic term, but have Dravidian origin.
Whenever the Vedic religion came to India, there already existed another religion. There is no slightest indication in the Vedic literature that they had conflicts with the local religion. Rather it seems they adopted the philosophies and local gods including Shiva, though they kept him outside of the Vedic pantheon and rituals.

Shudra term appears in only once, that too in a late hymn, only because they had not come earlier across them. The commands of Smriti’s were only applicable to the Vedic’s, those conducted fire sacrifices as their only religious ritual chanting Vedic verses. I have shown in this book elsewhere, the despicable commands those appear for Shudra’s were limited to the people those were employed by the Vedics to look after menial work. These people (including females) delved with them in their independent settlements. Keeping them aloof from their rituals was but natural. Though important to them for survival, the restrictions upon them were forced when men and women from both the classes naturally established sexual relationships, thus polluting Vedic breed. This all is clear from Smriti literature. There were two kinds of Shudra’s, those who were in their service and those who were not. There were Shudra kingdoms. Greek historians inform us of “Sudroi” (Shudra) tribe delving in north-west regions.

It, ironically, seems that in later era, it was erroneously considered that the commands of Smritis were applicable to all Shudras and that it was a lowly class. This is not the historical fact at all. We shall discuss over Mansmruti to know more on this.
On backdrop of this, we can conclude as following:

1) Whatever way Vedic religion might have come to India, could not force its social doctrine on the local people.

2) They could not change basic religious structure of the people, though they attained a kind of religious supremacy in later era.

3) Fourth Varna, i.e. Shudra, always meant the people those who never were Vedics. They made them pariah in their own rituals for they did not belong to their religion.

5)   They laid down restrictions only on those Shudras who were taken into the personal service. Shudras were always majority of the people. It was no surprise that the poor folks sought services wherever they could. Vedic religion was always limited and they needed servants. The need was fulfilled from the non-Vedic Shudra class.

One must not forget here that Shudras have totally different system on which we shall discuss in next chapter.
(To be contd.)

Caste and Varna system...

Social stratification based on the birth is considered to be unique feature of the caste system. Also it is largely assumed that caste rigid, birth based and unjust caste system has antique origin. The various Indian and European scholars have attempted to find the origin of the caste system. What we can derive from their viewpoints?

1.     Invariably most of the scholars have erroneously confused Varna system with caste system. In fact both are distinct concepts.

2.     Birth-based rigid caste system is thought to be an ancient fact of Hindu life.

3.     Some scholars believe that endogamous Jati’s, not Varnas, are castes.

4.     Scholars like H. S. Risley thinks that the caste means endogamous groups resulted from interactions between the different races of past.

5.     Dr. B. R. Ambedkar has different view. According to him the castes in India before colonial rule were exogamous society because marriages within blood-relatives and class-relations were forbidden. He proposes that the castes should be defined as a social group that tries to impose endogamy in an exogamous population.

6.     The definition given by Amar Kosha is, “Caste is a synonym of class. The groups formed by the social common customs are called Castes.”

7.     According to Dr. Iravati Karve the castes main feature is they are endogamous. Spread of the caste is in the limited geographical area where a single common language is spoken. Every caste has one or two ancestral profession and its status in comparison with other castes can be either higher or lower. The families with which marital ties can be established such group of the families is the caste. Hence the caste is nothing but expanded group of relations. Dr. Karve further states that the caste and tribe has striking similarities, such as limited geographical spread and presence of the caste panchayat (Assembly), hence the castes are formed out of ancient tribes.

8.     The castes are enforced upon the aboriginals by the invading victorious Aryans is another school of thought that is still dominant in the Indian society.
From above it will appear that what G. S. Ghurye wrote in 1932, “…despite much study by many people,... we do not possess a real general definition of caste. It appears to me that any attempt at definition is bound to fail because of the complexity of the phenomenon. On the other hand, much literature on the subject is marred by lack of precision about the use of the term.” is not exaggeration.

The above overview of the opinions of various scholars clearly shows that they are not unanimously clear about the origin of the castes. Some scholars have taken racial angles whereas some have taken tribal angle. However the fact remains that there are castes and every caste is concrete, independently functioning body set distinct and aloof from other castes, maintaining higher and lower status at the same time in the society.

Let us first discuss on the various opinions of the scholars of the past and try to find what could be the truth. We have seen in opening chapter that the scholars have mixed up Varna system with caste system and that is the reason most of their opinions have gone wrong and misleading.

Varna system is like a pyramid. It has descending order. Brahmin is placed higher and rest of the Varnas are set in descending order. It appears that there also was a time when Kshatriya’s claimed highest position over Brahmins. When Varna system became birth based is not exactly known. However, it appears when this religion came to India, the early preachers accumulated new converts in either Varna, excepting Shudra. It is possible that by this era Varna system gradually had become rigid and birth based.

Was Varna system profession based? Or was it essential that the particular person had to strictly follow the profession prescribed for his Varna? Smriti’s do not indicate this though they forcefully command it. Though Smriti’s laid down principles of profession to be followed by each Varna, it doesn’t appear that Vedic people strictly followed them. However they maintained their social status based on their Varna.

To a small religion, classifying people in three Varnas was quite easy. I doubt how many Kshatriyas were converted Vedics and how many were just designated by the Vedic Brahmins for the patronages they received from the warrior class people out of gratitude or flattering. After close analysis of Mahabharata and Ramayana, though later heavily interpolated, it does not seem that Kuru or Rama’s clan was Vedic Kshatriya as it is assumed. Later on Brahmins stopped designating any warrior or King as Kshatriya. They simply made declaration that in Kaliyuga there no more are Kshatriyas.

Anyway, Varna system was created by Vedics. Brahmins maintained their superiority for they were the early missionaries those had introduced Vedic religion to the people of Indian subcontinent. It flourished in Kuru-Panchal regions in the beginning and later thrived in Gangetic plains. The early opponents to this religion like Buddha and Mahavira too arose from these regions. Elsewhere this religion was yet to find some space.

What was the social system of the Indians before and after Vedic religion was introduced to some sections of the society?

We must bear in mind that Varna system of Vedic religion has divine origin. Such is not the case with Caste system because it always depended on the occupations and was so much so flexible that non-Vedic Hindu religion needed not any divine explanation for it.

We have archaeological proofs of early settlements throughout India. The settlements patterns clearly show that there were many professions, agriculture being prominent supported by animal husbandry and fishing. The housing patterns in towns and villages indicate it depended on financial ability or political authority of the owner. There were professions like pottery, copper-smith, ornament making, carpentry, trading (including import export), mining, mason work, tool making (from stones and metals) etc. in early period. There were semi-nomadic people like shepherds and cowherds.

Were they birth based? Did some religious authority suddenly invented all the professions and enforced on the whole Indian society, dividing it in the birth-based castes?  It would be ridiculous even to think of it. All the professions of early humanity are the outcome of gradual inventions and modifications.

For example, after copper Age Iron Age appeared. Sensing its utility many people got diverted to the new profession, to smelt the iron and make implements from it. It must be very profitable business in its early times. From where these people came and entered new profession had Caste system been rigid? The people entered this new profession must have been engaged in other businesses before. They could desert their previous business to enter another only because there did not exist birth-based rigid caste system. It only can happen when freedom to change profession is in place. And it clearly seems from available proofs and simple logic such freedom certainly did exist in India.

What is caste?

We have seen different opinions of the scholars on origin of the caste system. They are ambiguous while defining the caste system. We will critically examine their definitions later. What is the caste is main question and we have to deal with it first.

Caste is the profession that one adapts for his/her livelihood. All the castes in India are having some or other traditional profession. Many professions are now outdated as need of their professional skills no longer are required by the society. There are many professions those have been replaced by modern technologies. Many professions are long gone but the caste remains. Ironic but true fact is with any professions death or change in profession caste too should have been dead or changed. But our stark reality is stigma or pride of caste still thrives, no matter whether one adheres to ancestral profession or not. 

However fact of the past with emergence of new profession new caste would arise and death of it the caste too would vanish.

Rathkar (Chariot-maker) was a caste. With decline of chariot use in warfare the caste too vanished. Magadh, Suta, Bandi etc. castes (professions) too met with same fate. Did the people of that caste too vanished? No. They attended to other professions and survived.

Caste system was flexible. Caste is loose translation of original word “Jati”. It has not certain etymology. Jati (or Jaat) closely is related with the word that means “To go to”. It can mean that the profession one goes to is called “Jaat” (Caste). Or it will also mean, the profession one adapts for livelihood is “Jaat” (Caste).

The definition of Amar Kosha is descriptive. “Caste is a synonym of class. The groups formed by the social common customs are called Castes,” it says. It doesn’t help us much. Customs keep on changing and groups are not solely formed based on similarities in customs. Group can form based on similar profession in same religion or society. We can call it as affinity or brotherhood among similar professions.

There is no caste in India that doesn’t have (or had) any traditional occupational business. But originally occupation was not traditional. It was solely depended on the person to decide whether to stick to ancestral profession or to leave it.   

This does mean that castes are nothing but professions. Caste names too mostly are associated with the professions.

Now the question is apparent that how inequality among various castes did start to plague Indian society? Most important is how flexible caste system became rigid and birth based?

We shall deal with this vital question in next chapter.
(To be contd.)